For a European Civilisation: Reply to Rosa Balfour

Dear Dr. Balfour,

I read with no small amount of concern your recent piece in Carnegie Europe titled “Against a European Civilization: Narratives About the European Union”. What follows is a rebuttal of much of it, with less important elements left out.

In your article, you take exception to the idea “that there is something specifically European that underpins the European Union” and to President Macron’s appeal to “rebuild . . . a collective narrative and a collective imagination”. In this context, you mention “the…